First, the initiative device
The ship's main engine is the heart of the ship and the most important part of the ship's power equipment.
(1) marine main engine
A common name for an engine capable of generating propulsion power for ships includes various pumps and heat exchangers, pipes, etc. serving the engine. At present, the main engine of merchant ships is marine diesel engines, followed by steam turbines.
(2) transmission device
The power of the main engine is transferred to the propeller equipment, in addition to transmitting power, but also can play a deceleration, shock absorption, small boat can also use transmission equipment to change the direction of rotation of the propeller. Drive equipment varies slightly according to the type of main engine. Generally speaking, it consists of reducer, clutch, coupling, coupling, thrust bearing and ship shaft.
(3) shafting and propeller
Propeller is the most widely used propeller in ship propeller, and most of them use fixed pitch or adjustable pitch propeller. Ship shafting is the device that transmits power from main engine to propeller. Ship main engine generates thrust by propeller rotation driven by transmission and shafting to overcome hull resistance and make the ship forward or backward.
Two, auxiliary power plant
Ship auxiliary power plant, also known as "auxiliary machinery", refers to the ship's generator, which provides electrical energy for the ship in normal and emergency situations. The ship power station is composed of engine group, switchboard and other electromechanical equipment.
(1) generator set
The original power is mainly provided by diesel engines. Considering the safety and reliability of ships and the simplicity of maintenance and management, large ships are equipped with no less than two diesel generators of the same type, which can generate more than one generator at the same time as needed.
In order to save energy, some ships can use the drive shaft of the main engine to drive the generator (shaft generator) or use the residual heat of the main exhaust gas to generate low-pressure steam to drive the turbine-generator set to generate electricity.
(2) distribution panel
It distributes, controls, transports, transforms and converts electricity to meet the needs of electric drive equipment and the life, lighting, signal and communication of the whole ship.
Three. Steam boiler
Steam boilers are required on ships with diesel engines as their main engines. They are composed of auxiliary fuel stoves, exhaust gas boilers and pipes and equipment for their supporting services. Auxiliary oil-fired boilers are required to supply some auxiliary steam on board ships, such as heating fuel and lubricating oil, heating, domestic water, kitchen, boiling water, etc., and to meet the needs of some auxiliary steam. In order to save energy, the exhaust gas boiler in navigation uses the waste heat from the exhaust of diesel engine to generate steam, and only uses auxiliary fuel boiler when berthing.
Four. Refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment
Installation of refrigeration equipment on ships is to refrigerate the transport of goods, refrigerate a certain amount of food and improve the living and working conditions of crew and passengers. The task of the air conditioner is to keep the cabin in a climate suitable for people to work and live in. It includes cooling in summer, dehumidifying, heating and humidifying in winter, and ventilation throughout the year. Its main equipment includes refrigeration compressor, evaporator, condenser, air conditioner and its automatic control components.
Five. Compressed air device
Generally, there are several air compressors and compressed air cylinders on board to supply the compressed air needed by the whole ship, such as starting the main and auxiliary diesel engines with compressed air; reversing the main engine; providing air source for the flute, deck pneumatic machinery and other equipment. Its main equipments are air compressors, gas cylinders, piping systems, safety and control elements.
Six. Marine pumps and piping systems.
In order to pump seawater, fresh water, fuel oil, lubricating oil and other liquids on board, a certain number and different types of pumps are needed. In general, bilge pumps, fuel and lubricating oil pumps, boiler feed pumps, cooling pumps, ballast pumps, Sanitary Pumps and other major oil pumps and water pumps must be installed in the engine room. Connected with the pump, various pipelines are installed on the ship, which can be divided into:
(1) power system
The main business is the continuous operation of auxiliary machines. There are fuel, lubricating oil, fresh water, steam, compressed air and other piping systems.
(2) ship system
Management system for ship navigation, ship safety and personnel life service. Such as ballast, bilge water, fire, sanitation, ventilation (air conditioning) and domestic water pipes.
Seven. Water making device
Water-making device, also known as water-making machine, is a device that produces steam by heating seawater in a vacuum state, and then condenses the steam into fresh water.
Eight. Automation system
With the progress of science and technology and the wide application on ships, the engine room control system is more and more advanced. The long-distance control and centralized control of the ship's power plant greatly improve the working conditions of the crew, improve the working efficiency and reduce the maintenance and repair workload. The automation system composed of remote control, automatic adjustment, monitoring and alarm equipment for main and auxiliary machinery and other mechanical equipment in engine room is an indispensable part of modern ships.
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